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In radiometric dating, we determine the initial value by adding the number of daughter atoms present in the sample to the number of parent atoms present in the sample, both of which we can measure.

In the case of C-14 dating, we can add the number of N-14 atoms to the atoms of its parent isotope, C-14.

As long as the organism is alive, regardless of which rung on the food chain it occupies, it will retain a stable supply of C-14 by continually replenishing its stores. Humans and animals on the other hand refill their carbon reserves by consuming plants and other animals.

Forever canonized as the “Libby half-life,” the original half-life count his team calculated for C-±30 years, which has since been revised to its current value of 5730±40 years.

It is important to note that these revisions were the product of using more precise equipment and instrumentation, which brought us closer and closer to the reference value found in nature, and are not reflective of the decay rate fluctuating over time.

To date: “No naturally occurring physical or chemical conditions on Earth can appreciably change the decay rate of radioactive isotopes.” Moreover, many lab experiments have taken place in specific attempts to check and re-check decay rates, but these experiments have invariably failed to produce any significant changes. C-14 decay is measured in terms of exponential decay rates, meaning the rate of decay is dependent upon the number of C-14 atoms present in a sample.

If, for instance, the initial value of C-14 is 100 atoms, and we observe a sample with 50 atoms, we can then conclude the sample is approximately 5,730 years old.

Naturally occurring CO2 has a high C-14 ratio, while artificial (i.e., anthropogenic) CO2 from fossil fuel production emits lower C-14 ratios.